Sleeve gastrectomy, also referred to as vertical sleeve gastrectomy, is a weight-loss surgery. This procedure, which is frequently carried out via laparoscopy, entails creating tiny incisions in the upper abdomen to insert specialized instruments. Around 80% of the stomach is removed during the procedure, leaving a banana-shaped stomach with a smaller capacity.

Benefits and Hormonal Changes:

Sleeve gastrectomy reduces stomach size, which limits food intake and causes hormonal changes that promote weight loss. In addition to helping people lose weight, these hormonal changes also help people with conditions like hypertension and heart disease that are brought on by being overweight.

Purpose of Sleeve Gastrectomy:

Sleeve gastrectomies are performed in order to assist patients in losing excess weight and reduce their risk of developing life-threatening health issues like heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer, and infertility that are linked to obesity. Prior to thinking about a sleeve gastrectomy, it is advised to try losing weight through better eating and exercise habits.

Eligibility and Lifestyle Changes:

Surgery for a sleeve gastrectomy might be an option if:

You are extremely obese if your body mass index (BMI) is 40 or higher.
You have significant weight-related health problems like type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or severe sleep apnea, and your BMI is between 35 and 39.9 (obesity). Some weight-loss surgeries may also be appropriate for people with a BMI between 30 and 34 and severe weight-related health issues.

To live a healthier life, you must be prepared to make permanent lifestyle changes. This includes taking part in long-term follow-up plans that involve keeping an eye on medical conditions, dietary habits, lifestyle choices, and behavioral patterns.


Sleeve gastrectomy has potential short- and long-term health risks, just like any major surgery. The short-term risks include excessive bleeding, infection, anesthesia-related side effects, blood clots, breathing or lung issues, and leaks from the stomach’s cut edge. Constipation, hernias, gastroesophageal reflux, low blood sugar, malnutrition, and vomiting, are some long-term risks and complications.


You may be required to start a physical activity program and give up smoking in the weeks before the surgery. There might be limitations on what you can eat, drink, or take before the procedure. Planning for post-surgery recovery is advised, including making arrangements for help if required.

Procedure and Postoperative Care:

A hospital stay following a sleeve gastroplasty can last anywhere between one and two nights, depending on how well the patient recovers. Traditional open incisions or laparoscopic procedures using tiny incisions in the upper abdomen are two possible surgical approaches. Prior to the procedure, general anesthesia is administered. The stomach is stapled vertically during the procedure to remove the larger curved portion and create a narrow sleeve. One to two hours are usually allotted for the procedure, after which you will be watched closely for complications while you recover.

Diet after surgery and aftercare:

Following sleeve gastrectomy, the diet initially consists of sugar-free, noncarbonated liquids for the first seven days, gradually moving on to pureed foods for the next three weeks, and finally returning to regular foods after about four weeks. It may also be necessary to take a daily multivitamin, a calcium supplement, and a monthly shot of vitamin B-12 for the rest of your life. The first few months following weight-loss surgery require a lot of regular doctor visits, lab work, blood work, and various exams. As your body adjusts to the rapid weight loss, you might experience body aches, fatigue, coldness, dry skin, hair thinning, hair loss, and mood swings in the first three to six months.

Results and Better Health:

The degree of long-term weight loss following sleeve gastrectomy depends on lifestyle modifications. Within two years, it is possible to lose at least 60% of excess weight. Additionally, weight-related illnesses like heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes, stroke, and infertility can be treated or reversed with surgery. Additionally, it improves general quality of life and ability to carry out daily tasks.

Surgery for weight loss that doesn’t work:

If advised lifestyle changes are not made, there is a chance of insufficient weight loss or weight regain after the surgery. For instance, failure to avoid high-calorie snacks can impede weight loss. Adopting long-term healthy dietary changes, participating in regular physical activity, and exercising are essential to preventing weight regain. Following weight-loss surgery, it is essential to show up for scheduled follow-up appointments to track progress. It is advised to consult a doctor right away if weight loss is insufficient or complications develop.