Tooth extraction; It is the process of removing teeth that cannot be treated with crown applications, root canal treatment, or filling. It is performed by an oral surgeon or dentist.

It is most often performed under local anaesthesia. It can also be administered under general anaesthesia.

If this procedure is performed on visible teeth, it is called “simple tooth extraction”. However, the extraction of teeth that have not yet started to appear in the mouth or that are broken at the gum line is a more complex procedure and is called “surgical tooth extraction“. In this operation, the dentist must make a small incision in the gum and remove the tooth underneath.

In Which Situations Is Tooth Extraction Required?

  • If the teeth are damaged beyond repair due to decay, sagging, gingivitis, or trauma, there is no other solution but extraction.
  • Teeth that cause problems due to changes in position such as teeth.
  • The destruction of the tooth and its surroundings due to infection, the prevention of unnecessary teeth from growing new teeth, and the failure of milk teeth to erupt in a timely manner require tooth extraction.
  • In the case of a patient who needs orthodontic treatment, if many teeth do not fit completely in his jaw, tooth extraction can be applied for preliminary preparation to provide space.
  • Tooth extraction can be performed if the tooth does not protrude above the gum.
  • Loosening of the teeth due to periodontal, i.e. gum disease, may require the extraction of one or more teeth.
  • In patients using drugs for organ transplantation or chemotherapy, if the immune system is at risk for infection due to any complications, this may be a sufficient reason for tooth extraction.
  • Impacted or semi-impacted teeth may cause problems such as abscesses, pain, and cavities over time, which may require tooth extraction.
  • Wisdom teeth (third molars) are extracted during adolescence or early 20s.

Before Tooth Extraction

This is a safe procedure. However, there is still a risk of infection of the gum tissue or bacteria entering the circulatory system. If the patient is likely to develop an infection, antibiotic use should be started before tooth extraction.

Artificial or damaged heart valves, immune system disorders, congenital heart defects, cirrhosis, artificial joints (hip prosthesis, etc.), bacterial endocarditis and similar conditions should be reported to the dentist and precautions should be taken for possible problems before the operation.

How Is Tooth Extraction Performed?

In simple tooth extraction, the tooth and gum tissue are anaesthetised with local anaesthesia. The tooth is loosened with the help of a tool known as a dental elevator and pulled out with dental pliers.

In surgical tooth extraction, the area is anaesthetised locally. Also, general anaesthesia can be used for impacted wisdom tooth extractions.

The gum and bone tissue covering the tooth is cut. The tooth is then grasped with forceps and moved slowly back and forth. In this way, the bond between the tooth and the jawbone, which keeps it stable, is loosened. Sometimes tooth extraction can be difficult. In such cases, the tooth is removed in pieces.

After Tooth Extraction

Bleeding is normal and necessary. Gauze is placed in the cavity that remains in the tooth. The patient is instructed to bite it. In addition, a few stitches can be made to properly cover the edges of the gingiva in the extraction area. These are self-dissolving stitches, they do not need to be removed.

Sometimes the blood clot formed in the tooth socket loosens and falls off. As a result, the bone in the cavity is exposed. This condition, known as “dry socket”, is risky and painful.

The formation of a blood clot is of great importance for the initiation of the healing process. If something like this happens, the dentist will place an antibiotic or antiseptic pain-relieving paste in the socket, which will stay there for a few days.

Healing Process After Tooth Extraction

This process takes 1-2 weeks on average. New bone and tooth tissues begin to grow in the formed cavity.

Recovery time may take up to 3 weeks in complicated operations.

Bad breath can be seen due to the shooting cavities. With the filling of the gaps, this smell will also disappear.

It may be recommended to support missing teeth with treatments such as dentures, fixed bridges, or implants so that they do not adversely affect chewing and biting functions.

What Should Be Considered After Tooth Extraction?

  1. Firmly bite the gauze that your doctor placed on it.
  2. Keep the gauze pad there for half an hour after tooth extraction. Change the gauze before it absorbs the blood.
  3. If complications occur after tooth extraction, it is recommended to apply an ice pack to the area. It should be applied for at least 10 minutes and then repeated at intervals for 8 hours following the extraction. This will prevent swelling.
  4. You should avoid tampering with the shooting area with your tongue or any other instrument. Otherwise, the area may become infected, the clot may deteriorate and healing may be delayed.
  5. Prescribed pain relievers should be used as directed by the dentist without interruption.
  6. The first 24 hours should be rested, the mouth should not be rinsed with water or spit up too much so that the clot formed in that area does not move.
  7. One day later; Add half a teaspoon of salt to 1 glass of water and rinse your mouth with this prepared mixture.
  8. Lying down should be avoided. Keeping the head up while lying down will prevent bleeding.
  9. Smoking and alcohol use should be avoided for 3 days.
  10. After the operation, soft and liquid foods such as pudding, yogurt, mashed potatoes, applesauce, and soup should be consumed. Spicy, acidic, very hot, or very cold foods and beverages should be avoided. Pipettes should not be used during the first 24 hours. Solid foods should be introduced gradually.
  11. While brushing and flossing, these should not be touched to the extraction area.
  12. If the bleeding has not stopped even after 24 hours, a doctor should be consulted. If complaints such as nausea and vomiting, chills and fever, excessive discharge, swelling or redness in that area, chest pain, shortness of breath, or cough are observed, a doctor should be consulted without delay.